Dr. ROBERT K. BROWNE
PRESIDENT / GLOBAL NETWORKING
Dr. Browne initiated the Internet based Amphibian and Reptile Conservation journal in
2011. He also founded the ARC
Issues on Neurergus Salamanders, Giant
Salamanders, and Conservation Breeding, and supported them through
Dr. Robert K.
Browne has an
unusually wide range of experience and publications in scientific fields concerning
herpetolological conservation. His response to the global biodiversity conservation
crisis has focused on the sutainable management of amphibian and reptile biodiversity. Robert
also has extensive experience in Internet marketing and business
Working with zoos in Australia, the USA, Europe, and
as a research officer for the IUCN has led Robert to work with collaborative conservation
programs for threatened herpetofauna in the USA, Peoples Republic of China, Australia,
Russian Federation, Islamic Republic of Iran, and
Robert has experience in a wide range of research fields
supporting herpetological conservation and environmental sustainability. He has published in the
scientific fields of nutrition, pathology, parasitology, larval growth and development,
husbandry, thermo-biology, reproduction technologies, and facility
Robert pioneered the use of carotonoids, highly
unsaturated fatty acids, and UVB to prevent pathologies associated with nutritional deficiencies in
Robert’s PhD research in the late 1990s was seminal to
the development of gene banking to the preserve genetic diversity of threatened amphibian species,
where he developed the first reproduction technology providing fertile amphibian eggs from
Since then his research has led to major advances in the use of hormones to
promote amphibian reproduction that led to the first use of artificial fertilization to produce
tadpoles for release of a Critically Endangered amphibian, the Wyoming toad
(Bufo baxteri). These techniques have since been adopted for a number of other Critically
Endangered amphibian species including the Missisippi gopher frog (Lithobates sevosa).
Robert’s collaborative work with Nashville Zoo at Grassmere, USA, on the North
American giant salamander (Hellbender; Cryptobranchus
alleganiensis) in 2011 has supported the
development of the first genetically representative gene bank for any
His collaboration with the Russian Institute of Cell
Biophysics from 2009-present has resulted in the publication of articles describing the hormonal
induction and cryopreservation of amphibian sperm, neither of which had previously been achieved,
and the use of new methods for amphibian sperm
Recently, Robert has focussed on conservation programs for Critically
Endangered amphibians giant salamanders (Cryptobranchids) in the Peoples Republic of China, Japan,
and the USA, and on Neurergus newts in Iran and
His collaborative work in Iran and Iraq with the iconic and
Critically Endangered Loristan newt (Neurergus
kaiseri) and Kurdistan
newt (N. microspilotus) has resulted in have provided new perspectives concerning their
In addition to his work in
research and other international projects for the conservation of amphibians, Robert is
establishing a sustainability and biodiversity conservation project based at
Belize. Roberts considers that amphibian and
reptile conservation must be embedded within sustainability to achieve its long term
Li H, Robinson H, Uteshev VK, Shishova NR, McGinnity D, Nofs S. Figiel CR, Mansour N, Agnew D,
Carleton CL, Wu M, Gakhova EN, Byrne PG, Cosson J. 2014. Sperm motility in externally fertilising
fish and amphibians. Theriogenology DIO 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.09.018.
Bahmani Z, Karamiani R, Rastegar-Pouyani N, Gharzi A., Browne
R. K. 2014. The amphibian fauna of Kurdistan Province , Western Iran. Amphibian and Reptile
Conservation 9(1): 31–35.
Mobaraki A, Amiri
M, Alvandi R, Tehrani ME, Kia HZ, Khoshnamvand A, Bali A and Browne RK. 2014. A conservation reassessment of the Critically
Endangered, Lorestan newt Neurergus kaiseri (Schmidt
1952). Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 9(1): 16-25.
Browne RK, Li H, Wang Z, Hime P,
McMillan A, Wu M, Diaz R, Hongxing Z, McGinnity D, and Briggler JT. 2014. The giant salamanders
(Cryptobranchidae): Part B. Biology, ecology and reproduction. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation.
Conde DA, Colcher F, Pearce-Kelly P, Flesness N, Byers O, Gusset M,
Browne RK, Jones OR. 2013. Zoos through
the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A global metapopulation approach to support conservation
breeding programs. PLoS ONE 8(12): e80311.
David J. Gower, Thomas Doherty-Bone,Simon P. Loader, Mark Wilkinson, Marcel T. Kouete,
Benjamin Tapley, Frances Orton, Olivia Z. Daniel, Felicity Wynne, Edmund Flach,Hendrik Mu¨ller,
Michele Menegon, Ian Stephen, Browne RK,
Mathew C. Fisher, Andrew A. Cunningham, and Trenton W. J. Garner. 2013. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and lethal Chytridiomycosis
in caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona). EcoHealth. 10(2): 173-183.
Al-Sheikhly OF, Nader IA, Rastegar-Pouyani N, Browne
RK. 2013. New localities of the Kurdistan newt Neurergus microspilotus and Lake Urmia newt Neurergus crocatus (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Iraq. Amphibian and
Reptile Conservation 6(4):42–49.
Rastegar-Pouyani N, Takesh M, Fattahi A, Sadeghi M, Khorshidi F, and
Browne RK. 2013. Ecology of Kurdistan
newt (Neurergus microspilotus: Salamandridae):
Population and conservation with an appraisal of the potential impact of urbanization.
Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 6(4):30-35).
Shishova NV, Uteshev VK, PS Nikolai, Kuznetsova EA, AK Svetlana, Browne RK, Gakhova EN. 2013. The quality and fertility of sperm
from postmortem European common frogs (Rana
temporaria) refrigerated over seven days. Zoo Biology. 2013 Apr 22. doi:
Doherty-Bone TM, Gonwouo NL, Hirschfeld H T. Ohst T, Weldon C, Perkins M, Kouete MT,
Browne RK, Loader SP, Gower DJ, Wilkinson MW,
Rödel MO, Penner J, Barej MF, Schmitz A, J. Plötner J, Cunningham AA. 2012. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon,
including the first records of infected caecilian hosts. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 102:
Rödel MO, Doherty-Bone TM, Kouete MT, Jaanzen P, Garrett K, Browne RK, Gonwouo NL, Sandberger L. 2012. A new small
Phrynobatrachus (Amphibia: Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)
from southern Cameroon. Zootaxa 3431:54–68.
Browne RK, Li H, Wang Z, Hime P,
McMillan A, Wu M, Diaz R, Hongxing Z, McGinnity D, and Briggler JT. 2012. The giant salamanders
(Cryptobranchidae): Part A. palaeontology, phylogeny, genetics, and morphology. Amphibian and
Reptile Conservation. 5(4):17-29.
Uteshev VK, Shishova NV, Browne RK,
Gakhova EN. 2012. Hormonal induction of sperm from amphibians with Rana temporaria and Bufo
bufo as anuran models. Reproduction, Fertility and Development.
Zippel K, Johnson K, Gagliardo R, Gibson R, McFadden M, Browne RK, Martinez C, Townsend E. 2011. The Amphibian Ark: a
global community for ex situ conservation of amphibians. Herpetological Conservation and Biology
Browne RK, Hong L, McGinnity D, Okada
S, Zhenghuan W, Bodinof CM, Irwin KJ, McMillan A, Briggler JT. 2011. Survey techniques for giant
salamanders and other aquatic Caudata. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 5(4):
Browne RK, Wolfram K, Pereboom Z JJM,
Garcia G. 2011. Zoo based amphibian research and conservation breeding programs. Amphibian and
Reptile Conservation 5(3): 1-14.
Verschooren E, Browne RK, Vercammen F,
Pereboom JJM. 2011. UV-B and the early growth and skeletal development of the Amazonian milk
frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix) from
metamorphosis. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology 2(3): 34-42.
Browne RK, Li H, Robertson H, Uteshev
VK, Shishova NR, McGinnity D, Nofs S, Figiel CR, Mansour N, Lloyd RE, Agnew D, Carleton CL, Wu M,
Gakhova EN. 2011. Reptile and amphibian conservation through gene banking and other reproduction
technologies. Russian J. Herpetology. 18(3): 165-174.
Browne RK, Figiel C. 2011. Chapter 2.
Crypreservation in Amphibians” In: Cryopreservation of Aquatic Species. Vol 8. Edited by Dr.
Terrence Tiersch and Dr. Patricia Mazik. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, La Hardcover, ~450
Shishova NR., Uteshev VK., Kaurova SA., Browne RK., Gakhova EN. 2010.
Cryopreservation of hormonally induced sperm for the conservation of threatened amphibians with
Rana temporaria as a model research species. Theriogenology. 75(2):
RE, Browne RK. 2009. Review. Ultraviolet radiation and Vitamin D3 in Amphibian Health,
Behaviour, Diet and Conservation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – part B 154(2):
Lermen D, Blömeke
B, Browne RK, Clarke A, Dyce PW, Fixemer T, Fuhr GR, Holt WV, Jewgenow K, Lloyd RE, Lötters S,
Paulus M, Reid GM, Rapoport DH, Rawson D, Ringleb J, Ryder OA, Spörl G, Schmitt T, Veith M, Müller
P. 2009. Meeting Review. Cryobanking of viable biomaterials: implementation of new strategies for
conservation purposes. Molecular Ecology 18: 1030–1033.
Li H, Vaughan
MJ, Browne RK. 2009. A complex enrichment diet improves growth and health in the endangered
Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri). Zoo Biology. 28(3):197-213.
RK, Gaikhorst G, Vitali S, Robert JD, Matson P. 2007.
Exogenous hormones induce poor rates of oviposition in the anurans, Litoria aurea and L. moorei.
Applied Herpetology 5: 81-86.
Smith K. 2007. A new
narinosa (Syngnathidae) from South Australia.
Memoirs of Museum Victoria. 6:1-6.
Browne RK, Baker, JK, Connolly R. 2007. Seadragons, seahorses, and pipefish. In: Natural History of
Gulf St Vincent. Eds, S. Bryars, S.A. Shepherd, P. Harbison, I. Kirkegaard. Royal Society of
South Australia. 450 pp.
, Zippel K. 2007.
Reproduction and larval rearing. Use of amphibians in research, laboratory, or
classroom settings. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR), Volume 48 (3):
Browne RK, Zippel, Odum AR, Herman T. 2007. Physical
facilities and associated services. Use of amphibians in research, laboratory, or classroom
settings. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR), Volume 48 (3):
, Li H. 2006. Sexually
mediated shedding of Myxobolus
fallax spores during spermiation
of Litoria fallax (anura). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 72(1):
Browne RK, Seratt J, Vance C, Kouba A. 2006. Hormonal
induction with priming and In vitro fertilization increases egg numbers and quality in the
Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri). Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 4:34.
Browne RK, Seratt J, Li H, Kouba A. 2006. Progesterone
improves the number and quality of hormonally induced fowler toad (Bufo fowleri) oocytes. Reproductive
Biology and Endocrinology, 4:3.
DL. 2003. The effect of temperature on the growth and
development of green and golden bell frogs (Litoria
aurea). Journal of Thermal Biology. 28:
Browne RK, Pomering
M, Hamer AJ. 2003. High density effects on
the growth, development and survival of Litoria aurea tadpoles. Aquaculture. 215 (1-4):
Browne RK, Mahony M, Clulow J. 2002. A comparison of sucrose, saline, and saline with egg-yolk
diluents on the cryopreservation of cane toad (Bufo
marinus) sperm. Cryobiology. 44 (3):
Clulow J. 2002. Storage of cane toad (Bufo marinus)
sperm for 6 days at 0ºC with subsequent cryopreservation. Reproduction, Fertility and
Development. 14 (5): 267-273.
Browne RK, Clulow J, Manony M. 2002. The short-term
storage and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from hylid and myobatrachid frogs. Cryo Letters
Browne RK, Clulow J, Mahony M. 2002. The effect of saccharides on the post-thaw recovery of cane
toad (Bufo marinus) spermatozoa. Cryo Letters. 23(2): 121-128.
Scheltinga DM, Pomering M, Mahony M. 2002. Testicular
myxosporidiasis in anurans, with a description
of Myxobolus fallax n. sp. Systematic Parasitology. 52(2): 97-110.
Browne RK, Clulow J, Mahony M. 2001. Short-term storage of cane toad (Bufo marinus) gametes.
Reproduction. 121(1): 167-173.
Browne RK, Clulow J, Mahony M, Clark A. 1998. Successful recovery of motility and fertility of
cryopreserved cane toad (Bufo
marinus) sperm. Cryobiology. 37(4):